Plans for European Astrobiology Institute announced

eai, european astrobiology institute, astrobiology and society, epsc, berlin, klara anna capova
The “Flammarion Engraving”, a woodcut engraving by unknown first documented in Camille Flammarion‘s 1888 book “L’atmosphère: météorologie populaire”.

Source: Europlanet Society Press Releases

Astrobiology, the study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond, is a multidisciplinary field that has expanded rapidly over the last two decades. Now, a consortium of organisations has announced plans to establish a European Astrobiology Institute (EAI) to coordinate astrobiology research in Europe. The new institute is being created in accordance with the recommendations of a White Paper addressing the scientific and social implications of astrobiology research in Europe, presented today at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) 2018 in Berlin.

The White Paper includes contributions from authors in twenty countries and over thirty scientific institutions worldwide. The contributions draw on the experiences of other astrobiology research communities around the world and recognise the societal implications of the field as well as addressing the scientific goals.

“We are increasingly well-placed to answer major questions concerning the possibility of extraterrestrial life, the origins of life on Earth and the evolution of our planet,” said Wolf Geppert, co-author of the White Paper chapter on leading the future of astrobiology in Europe. “By its nature, astrobiology is multidisciplinary field that requires collaboration. This White Paper shows that Astrobiology has the potential to be a flagship of European cooperation. The formation of the EAI will provide a structure that will bring together many organisations involved in the field to coordinate research and provide a proactive voice for the community.”

Missions and research programmes related to astrobiology have led to some of the most significant and high-profile discoveries in recent years. Thousands of planets have been discovered in other solar systems. The Rosetta mission confirmed a connection between comets an the life-supporting atmosphere on Earth. There is the potential that, in the near future, we will discover living or fossilized microbes on planets or moons within our own Solar System, or we could find signs of biological processes in exoplanetary systems.

“Regardless of whether or not we find evidence for life beyond Earth, astrobiology can provide paradigm-changing scientific advances in our understanding of our origins and our place in the Universe,” said Nigel Mason, who edited and co-authored the White Paper chapter on science and research. “Key areas of research identified in the White Paper include understanding the formation of habitable planets and moons, the pathway to produce the complex organics needed for life from simple molecules, how the conditions for life evolved on the early Earth and the study of life under extreme conditions.”

The White Paper includes sections on environmental protection and sustainability, current regulation, education, training, careers, technical innovation and commerce. In particular, the White Paper emphasises the role of social sciences and humanities in astrobiology and how the field has the capacity to change the view of how humans look at themselves and what it means to be alive.

“Astrobiology has clear existential implications. The social sciences and humanities can play a key role in helping us to prepare for the discovery of life beyond Earth, whether microbial or intelligent, and to understand the likely theological, ethical and worldview impacts on society,” said Klara Anna Čápová, co-editor of the White Paper and author of chapters on the social study of astrobiology as a science and public understanding of astrobiology. “Astrobiology is a subject of intrinsic interest to the general public and to school students but it is also vulnerable to misinterpretation. The formation of the EAI will enable us to make sure that reliable information is distributed to Europe’s citizens and classrooms and that they are actively engaged with the field.”

Astrobiology also presents environmental challenges in ensuring that any extraterrestrial life forms or remains are not compromised by scientific investigations (forward planetary protection), and protecting the Earth from contamination by potentially harmful biological material of extraterrestrial origin (backward planetary protection).

“The preservation of biodiversity and of pristine environments on Earth is of the greatest importance for our ability to study life, its origin, distribution and future. Both forward and backward planetary protection must be understood within a broader context of ensuring the sustainability of scientific and commercial practices,” said Erik Persson, co-editor of the White Paper and author of chapters on the international context of astrobiology and environment and sustainability.

An interim board has been established to map out the tasks, structure, governing bodies, activities, funding and administration of a EAI. The presentation of the White Paper at EPSC 2018 is the first step in a community consultation on its recommendations and plans for the EAI. The formal launch of the EAI is planned for the spring of 2019.

The White Paper “Astrobiology and Society in Europe Today”, edited by K. Capova, E. Persson, T. Milligan, D. Dunér, is published through the SpringerBriefs in Astronomy book series, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The final authenticated version is available online at:

Interview: I am Fascinated by Our Universe and Humanity’s Place in It

English version of the interview for the Pufendorf Institute for Advanced Studies, Lund University, Sweden

Published on Jun, 26, 2017

Klara Anna Capova is a guest researcher with the theme A Plurality of Lives, which is about to finish up its work at the Pufendorf IAS in Lund. She is currently working in social study of astrobiology at Durham University in the UK.

What is your background?

I am a sociocultural anthropologist with specialisation in science, technology and society studies, currently working in social study of astrobiology. I received my undergraduate degree in Liberal Arts and Humanities specialising in the history and philosophy of science, and my postgraduate degree in General Anthropology specialising in cultural and philosophical anthropology, both from Charles University in Prague, the Czech Republic.

My doctoral research (Durham University, 2013) is about the conceptual development and the social context of the scientific search for life beyond Earth. My aim was to describe the scientific search for other life as a specific culture of science. This encompassed the study of scientific practices, public attitudes, science fiction, visual culture and impact of science and technology on contemporary society. So I conducted not only multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork, but also extensive work with visual evidence which I particularly enjoyed.

Why are you involved in the theme A Plurality of Lives?

As an affiliated researcher I took part in the theme from its very beginnings. I was excited when I was invited over to Lund to work here for three months to meet the theme researchers in person and also to get to know the beautiful city
of Lund better. It is also a delight to work with the staff at Pufendorf IAS!

What do you hope to contribute?

My task is to complete a pre-final version of Astrobiology and Society in Europe White Paper. This is a joint endeavour of the working group on History and Philosophy of Astrobiology of COST Project TD1308 Origins of Life. The White Paper involves nearly thirty brilliant researchers from twelve European countries and various space science disciplines. The main aim of the document is to address scientific and societal issues, discuss current status and propose a sustainable future of astrobiology research in the European Union. And at least but not last, to support the founding of the European Astrobiology Institute.

What do you hope to get out of your stay?

I am greatly enjoying my time here and embracing the opportunity of getting to know the place and the people, a wonderful time that money can’t buy. Workwise, the White Paper is my priority, but I continue my work in the social study of astrobiology and outer space. So far I have managed to deliver a research poster at NASA Astrobiology Conference in Arizona, and am now getting ready to take part in the Emerging Scholar Workshop at the Center for Theological Enquiry in Princeton.

What are your research interests?

In general, I explore transformations of human relations to outer space and study how science changes society. This involves study of advancements in astrobiology, history and philosophy of science, and of contemporary astroculture, as well as popular perceptions of science and the societal context of space exploration. The special case for this is the scientific search for life beyond Earth and the popular imagining of alien life. I am active in qualitative social research, science policy development, and in delivering talks, lectures, poster sessions, and workshops worldwide.

What drives you?

I am really just a curious person and I greatly enjoy interdisciplinary dialogue and reaching out into other areas of science. I am fascinated by the topics I am currently researching. That is; our universe, humanity’s place in it and what does it mean being human in the 3rd millennium.

What are you working on right now?

Apart from the above mentioned White Paper, I am currently working on a paper on space industry, its growth and potential impact on Earth’s environment and on society. Also the plans for future settlements on Mars and the Moon are on my radar too. Since 2013 I have been running a research profile on Facebook @spacecultures, the Space Cultures page is dedicated to societal, cultural, ethical, historical, scientific and philosophical aspect of search for life beyond earth and space cultures worldwide.

Have you ever been to Lund and/or Sweden?

Yes, I was in Lund last year before Christmas, when we had the first writing up meeting dedicated to the Astrobiology White Paper. Our work has progressed well since that time and we are now aiming at submitting the final version in October. It has been a privilege to work with Erik Persson and David Dunér, both participating in the Plurality of Lives Project at the Pufendorf IAS.

Jag är fascinerad av universum och mänsklighetens plats i det.

Publicerad den 26 juni 2017

Klara Anna Capova är en gästforskare som har arbetat med temat A Plurality of Lives som snart avslutar sitt arbete på Pufendorfinstitutet. Hon är en en sociokulturell antropolog som är verksam vid Durhams universitet i Storbrittanien.

Vad är din bakgrund?

Jag är en sociokulturell antropolog med specialistkompetens inom vetenskap, teknik och samhällsstudier. Just nu arbetar jag med sociala studier inom astrobiologi. Min kandidatexamen är inom humaniora och konst, och jag specialiserade mig inom historia och filosofi. Min forskarexamen var inom antropologi, med ett fokus på kulturell och filosofisk antropologi. Både min kandidat och min forskarexamen tog jag vid Charles universitet i Prag, Tjeckien.

Min doktorandforskning (Durham University, Storbritannien, 2013) handlade om den konceptuella utvecklingen av den sociala kontexten för det vetenskapliga utforskandet av liv bortom vår egen planet. Mitt syfte var att beskriva det vetenskapliga sökandet efter liv som en specifik vetenskaplig kultur. Avhandlingen omfattade studier av vetenskapliga angreppssätt, allmänna attityder, science fiction, visuell kultur och vetenskapens och teknologins påverkan på dagens samhälle. Det gjorde att jag genomförde både etnografiska studier samt ett omfattande arbete med visuella källor, något som jag särskilt njöt av.

Varför arbetar du med temat A Plurality of Lives?

Jag har varit en del av detta tema från dess början, som en affilierad forskare. Jag blev väldigt glad när jag blev inbjuden till Lund för att arbeta med temat i tre månader, personligen möta forskarna, samt lära känna det vackra Lund bättre. Det är också ett nöje att arbeta med människorna bakom Pufendorfinstitutet.

Vad vill du bidra med?

Min uppgift är att avsluta en nästan färdig version av Astrobiology and Society in Europe White Paper. Det är ett gemensamt arbete som utförs av en arbetsgrupp inom historia och filosofi i COST Project TD1308 Origins of Life. Rapporten samlar nästan 30 duktiga forskare från tolv europeiska länder, samt olika rymdvetenskaper. Rapportens huvudsakliga syfte är att adressera vetenskapliga och samhälleliga frågor, diskutera hur situationen ser ut idag och föreslå en hållbar framtid för astrobiologisk forskning inom EU. Sist men inte minst ska rapporten stödja etableringen av det europeiska astrobiologiinstitutet under 2018.

Vad vill du få ut av din vistelse?

Jag njuter verkligen av min tid här, och jag tar till vara möjligheten att lära känna platsen och människorna – det är en underbar tid som är guld värd. Arbetsmässigt, så ligger mitt fokus på att skriva den rapport jag nämnde, men jag fortsätter också mitt arbete inom sociala studier och astrobiologi och rymdstudier. Än så länge har jag lyckats med att presentera en forskningsposter på NASA:s astrobiologkonferens i Arizona, USA, och nu förbereder jag mig för att medverka i en workshop vid centret för teologiska undersökningar vid Princetons universitet, USA.

Vad är dina forskningsintressen?

Sammanfattningsvis, utforskar jag hur jag hur mänskliga relationer till rymden har förändrats, och studerar hur vetenskapen förändrar samhället. Det omfattar studier av utveckling inom astrobiologi, historia, filosofi, och samtida astrokultur, liksom populärvetenskapliga uppfattningar om vetenskap och den samhälleliga kontexten för utforskandet av rymden. Forskningsfältet baseras på det pågående vetenskapliga utforskandet av liv i rymden, och de populärkulturella föreställningar som finns om utomjordiskt liv idag. Jag är också aktiv inom kvalitativ social forskning, bidrar i framtagandet av olika typer av riktlinjer, och genomför seminarier, posterutställningar och workshops över hela världen.

Vad driver dig?

Jag är en nyfiken person – jag uppskattar interdisciplinär dialog och att utforska andra områden inom vetenskaplig forskning. Jag är fascinerad av de ämnen som jag utforskar – som exempelvis vårt universum, mänsklighetens plats i det, och vad det betyder att vara mänsklig när vi är inne i det tredje millenniet.

Vad arbetar du med just nu?

Just nu arbetar jag med en artikel om rymdindustri, dess framväxt och möjlig påverkan på vår planets natur och vårt samhälle. Vidare är planerna på framtida bosättningar på Mars och månen på min radar också. Sedan 2013 driver jag en forskarprofil på Facebook, @spacecultures, Space Culturessidan lyfter fram samhälleliga, kulturella, etiska, vetenskapliga och filosofiska aspekter på sökandet efter liv bortom vår egen planet, samt rymdkulturer världen över.

Har du varit i Lund och/eller Sverige tidigare?

Ja, jag var i Lund 2016, före jul, då vi hade vårt första skrivarmöte för rapporten om astrobiologi. Vårt arbete har fortskridit bra sedan dess och vi satsar nu på att skicka in den sista versionen i oktober 2017. Det har varit ett privilegium att arbeta med Erik Persson och David Dunér, som båda ingår i temat Pluality of Lives.


24th Image Symposium, Madrid, 20 – 22 June

Looking forward to delivering a keynote lecture and taking part in the Image Symposium 2017 in CA2M Centro de Arte Dos de Mayo in June.

24th Image Symposium – Glitch Futures. Data Speculation, Technocosmology and Dispossession in Times of Accelerated Capitalism, 20 − 22 JUNE 2017

The temperature of viscous Miami swamps rose as high-risk frequency trading propelled through sub-Atlantic fibre cable highways. The pulse of their desires synchronised with the construction rate of newly incepted tropical islands built on radioactive trade-debris by the bay of Dubai. And as orbiting space junk was transformed into military checkpoints for the recent colonies en route to the seven earth-like planets, the Extractivist Dream Society gathered to rethink flashy new forms of post-ethical marketing for the enhanced humans who were on their way.

This edition of the symposium reflects on the current visual production of accelerated capitalism, or how images, data and algorithms are articulating forms of governance due to their speculative nature: how they boost financial and urbanist speculation, operate as affective currencies, unleash paranoid wavelengths of cyberwarfare, and impact the pressing rise of climatic fictions via denialism and extra-planetary colonialism. For that purpose, this symposium is envisioned as a Futurological Data Bureau that sets out to analyse how the politics of image circulation are implicit in today’s material culture, fuelling rampant dispossession, extractivism and neo-colonialism. It explores how virtual reality produces devastating realities of technocratic austerity and widespread states of anxiety while draining and co-opting the production of future imaginaries. Consequently, the prospective aim of the Bureau will be to identify the glitch of these imaginaries, to collectively intervene the code malfunction and its interstices in order to relaunch the imagination of our futures.

The IMAGE SYMPOSIUM is a programme devoted to the collective reflection, theory and practice around image production and visual cultures, comprising an international seminar, workshops and an open call to the public for research projects.

With contributions by Klara Anna Capova, Julie Doyle, Lisa Messeri, Metahaven, César Rendueles, Gean Moreno, and Sidsel Meineche Hansen, followed by respondents José Manuel Bueso, Marta Peirano, Diego del Pozo.

Workshops by Regina de Miguel, Metahaven, Gean Moreno.

The symposium will be held on 20, 21 J and 22 june from 4:00 to 8:00 pm and workshops on 20, 21 and 22 June from 11:00 am to 14:00 pm.

Enrolment free until 19 June


20 JUN 16:00 – 20:00
Climate warfare and extraplanetary imaginings
Ever more, planetary transcendence is used as a horizon of conquest, projecting human future beyond tangible spatiality. The New Space Age arrives at this moment of widespread-felt planetary crisis, when the demand for resource management incites a shift to the engineered futures of extraplanetary quest. Ever since the cold war era, several nations have invested in the militarisation of space as a horizon for investment, projecting in it its growth-led economies, nuclear surveillance plans, and extractivist policies. At the same time, Earth’s climate models have been successively disputed, with a constant challenge linked to data erasure and manipulation to control mainstream opinion. Inquiring into how the implications of data analysis are involved in mythmaking and cosmology today, we will explore how are our representation systems affecting material politics in earth today. How have planetary and space representations been altered through the politics of imagining technologies over the last few years? Furthermore, how is this shift towards space extractivism implied in the systemic and ecologic relation we have with the Earth?

Klara Anna Capova is Honorary Research Fellow, Department of Anthropology at the Durham University (UK) and Visiting Research Fellow at Pufendorf Institute for Advanced Studies in Lund University (Sweden). She is a sociocultural anthropologist working in Science and Technology Studies. Her main research interests are in the social study of astrobiology and scientific search for extraterrestrial life in general. Klara Anna is looking into transformations of human relations to outer space, developments in contemporary worldviews and studies how science changes society.

Julie Doyle is Professor of Media and Communication, and Co-Chair of the Centre for Research in Spatial, Environmental and Cultural Politics, University of Brighton. Her research explores how visual media and culture shape climate change communication and engagement. Prof. Doyle has collaborated with visual artists and practitioners, and provided consultancy for environmental NGOs, government, and the sustainability communications sector.

Lisa Messeri is an anthropologist of science who researches the human dimensions of scientific endeavours, focusing on planetary science and virtual reality. She is an Assistant Professor at the University of Virginia and the author of “Placing Outer Space: An Earthly Ethnography of Other Worlds.” She studied aerospace engineering as an undergraduate at MIT before earning a Ph.D. in anthropology.

José Manuel Bueso is a freelance theorist and docent. He is also director of La Unidad de Imaginación Forense, the shared reading group in the first season of Escuelita, called Speculative Infrastructures

21 JUN 16:00 – 20:00
Cyberfetishhim and black transparency
The technocratic regime in which we live today is undeniable: computation on a global scale —internet and mobile devices, information networks and data clouds, apps and intelligent cities, automation of several realms of life and artificial intelligence, wiki-democracy and augmented society— has given rise to a technological mega-infrastructure which is at once an architecture of governance and of political transformation. We are caught between determinism and technological fetishism. In this context, images operate as currencies of value, as vectors of financial, political and affective flows with the capacity to shape or (undo) subjects, communities, cities, territories and the relationships they establish between each other. The case of surveillance is paradigmatic: never before in history have we been so closely controlled, and we have proactively participated in this form of control. Algorithms and patterns of recognition have replaced any ethical decalogue, and we have embraced paranoia and distrust as a structure, in favour of slogans of protection, safety and democracy. Opposing this panorama of systematic surveillance and the mobilisation of large swathes of contemporary life towards the digital world, we will explore issues of cyberfetishism as well as the tactical notion of Black Transparency, understood as a radical form of democracy of information.

Metahaven is a strategic design studio operating on the cutting edge between communication, aesthetics, and politics. Founded by Vinca Kruk and Daniel van der Velden, Metahaven creates ingenious, strange assemblages between different art forms ranging from installations to clothing. Their work, both commissioned and self-produced, addresses branding and identity in such a way to speak of contemporary forms of power, in an age where power is especially designed to exclude as many people as possible from its operating system, its code.

César Rendueles is a doctor in philosophy and a lecturer in sociology at Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He has published Sociofobia. El cambio político en la era de la utopía digital (2013), Capitalismo canalla (2015) and En bruto. Una reivindicación del materialismo histórico (2016), and has also edited classic texts by Karl Marx, Walter Benjamin, Antonio Gramsci and Karl Polanyi.

Critical Sessions

Marta Peirano is deputy editor of; founder of Cryptoparty Berlin and co-director of COPYFIGHT. She has published books on automatons, annotation systems and technological futurism and an introduction to cryptography for journalists and media sources called El Pequeño Libro Rojo del activista en Red. This is the first book in the world with a prologue by Edward Snowden. She also writes a column on technology, digital art and surveillance for the journal Muy Interesante.

22 JUN 16:00 – 20:00
CCC (Corporal, capital, city) Whitening

Whether as previsualistions or models, the production of 3D virtual animation has become a key tool for manifold sectors, ranging from the military complex to architecture and city planning studios to the porn industry. Far from being innocuous, these technologies of visual production are not only altering the operative fields in which they are inserted, but are also affecting and modifying the subjects, objects and territories they represent, generally for the sake of commodification. Through various case studies, this symposium will explore the performativity of these animations or, in other words, the reality effects created by this visual production and their consequences. For instance, the architectural animation of the city of Miami is building the imaginary of the city itself, channelling forms of capital and normalising the vertical military gaze through the drone aesthetic. It is a perspective that describes space in terms of friend or enemy, erasing from the visual surface those (dispossessed and racialised) subjects that get in the way of the projection of luxury apartment blocks. Likewise, we will also explore how the high-tech gaming and pornography industries are creating animations of hyper-sexualised female bodies that tacitly reproduce regimes of productive and reproductive work. These are phantasmagorical images proper to the current neoliberal times which, besides emphasising the dispossession of bodies they (do not) represent, are normalising a state of disaffection: the generalised desensitisation through the purported rationality of the technologies that produce them and their systematised consumption.

Gean Moreno is Curator of Programs at ICA Miami, where he founded and organizes the Art + Research Center. He is on the Advisory Board of the 2017 Whitney Biennial and serves as co-director of [NAME] Publications. Between 2014-2016, Moreno was Artistic Director at Cannonball, where he developed pedagogical platforms and public commissions. He has contributed texts to various catalogues and publications, including e-flux journal, Kaleidoscope, and Art in America, and has lectured at numerous universities.

Sidsel Meineche Hansen is an artist based in London. Her work takes the form of woodcut prints, sculptures, CGI and VR animations which typically foreground the body’s industrial complex in the pharmaceutical, porn and tech-industries. Her research-led practice also manifests as group work, seminars and publications. In 2009 she co-founded the research collective Model Court, and in 2015 she co-edited Politics of Study (London and Odense: Open Editions and Funen Art Academy). Meineche Hansen was a visiting scholar at California Institute of the Arts in 2016; currently she is associate professor at the Funen Art Academy, Denmark and visiting lecturer at Royal Academy of Fine Art, London.

Critical Sessions

Diego del Pozo is an artist, cultural producer and lecturer at the School of Fine Arts at USAL. His practice is driven by politics of emotions, affective economies and how affective devices are socially and culturally produced. He is a member of the art collectives Subtramas, C.A.S.I.T.A. and Declinación Magnética. He is also a member of the research groups Las Lindes, Península and Visualidades Críticas. Del Pozo has shown his work in many solo and group exhibitions and video programmes at various galleries and contemporary art centres.


More information at or at (+34) 912 760 227

Astrobiology White Paper poster presented at NASA AbSciCon 2017

… and the second AbSciCon 2017 poster ‘Astrobiology and Society. A White Paper on Societal Implications of Astrobiology Research in Europe Today’ by Klara Anna Capova, David Dunér, and Erik Persson is also available online:


Klara Anna Capova*1, David Duner2, Erik Persson3,4

1 Department of Anthropology, Durham University, UK, Email:
2 Department of Arts and Cultural Sciences, Lund University, Sweden
3 Center of Theological Inquiry, Princeton, USA Email:
4 The Pufendorf Institute for Advanced Studies, Lund University, Sweden

The poster presents recent work of Working Group 5 Philosophy and History of Science, is a Trans Domain European COST Action Life-ORIGINS TD1308 and introduces the latest draft of the White Paper on societal implications of astrobiology research in European context, ‘Astrobiology and Society in Europe Today.’ The poster provides overview of sections related to contributions of astrobiology to society, advancement of science in Europe, environmental protection and the quest for sustainability, as well as societal challenges from astrobiology, and potential conflicts of interest between astrobiology and commercial use of space. Furthermore, it will illustrate the contemporary perceptions of astrobiology by general public and the timely role of an organised initiative in astrobiology education and popularisation of science.

Klara joined the Working Group on Astrobioethics

I feel very privileged to have been given the opportunity to become one of the SOC members of the International WG on Astrobioethics.

One of the main tasks of the Working Group will be to analyse the potential societal and ethical implications related to astrobiology, taking into account the complexity of the connections between its main scientific issues and goals (see, for instance, the NASA Astrobiology Institute Astrobiology Roadmap), and considering the synergies between both bioethical and geoethical approaches (from microbes to humans and from the Earth to space environments). To find out more and keep up with the latest news please like the International Working Group on Astrobioethics Facebook page.

The International Association on Geoethics is the only organisation linking geosciences and ethics, which incorporates in its official definition the significance of astrobiology: “Studies on planetary geology (sensu lato) and astrobiology also require a geoethical approach”. For more please see the IAGETH definition of geoethics.


Klara joined the Action!

Life-ORIGINS (TD1308) is a Trans Domain European COST Action investigating the origins and evolution of life. Life-ORIGINS is dedicated to the scientific investigation of the origins and evolution of life on Earth and habitability of other planets.

The objective of Working Group 5 (WG5) History and Philosophy of Sciences is to assess, from a philosophical perspective, of how the boundaries between chemistry and biology are being transformed as a result of a shift towards increasingly systemic or holistic approaches in the quest for a naturalist explanation of the origin of life.

The Action has specifically excluded the search for intelligent extraterrestrial life in its portfolio. Creationist theorems are also outside the Action’s remit.